The Filecoin project is a decentralized storage system. The Filecoin protocol was first proposed in 2014 and was originally developed as an incentive layer for the Interplanetary File System (IPFS), a peer-to-peer storage network. Like IPFS, Filecoin is an open protocol that High Price(最高价) builds on the properties of IPFS with the same underlying p2p network and content addressing capabilities.
The Filecoin node network generates a decentralized storage market for file retrieval and storage. The network High Price(最高价) is powered by a new type of blockchain that records commitments made by network participants. Users conduct transactions on the network using the blockchain’s native cryptocurrency, FIL.
Search the market
In the retrieval market, nodes called retrieval miners compete to deliver files to clients as quickly as High Price(最高价) High Price(最高价) High Price(最高价) possible. Retrieval miners are rewarded with a small FIL fee. This provides incentives for nodes at key locations for content delivery to join the network and facilitates rapid distribution of files. It also encourages the establishment of a robust network for copying and preserving files in high demand.
In Filecoin's storage marketplace, nodes known as storage miners have the power to High Price(最高价) compete for contracts on various characteristics, such as price and location, to provide customers with file custody for a specified length of time. Before accepting a contract, storage miners must pre-collateralize FIL; this is used to automatically compensate clients if storage miners fail to meet their obligations to clients.
When a storage miner and their client make a deal, the client transmits High Price(最高价) their data to the storage miner. Storage miners add their data to a sector, which is the basic unit of storage in Filecoin . Miners then perform a computationally intensive operation called sealing to create a unique copy of that sector's data.
If a client wants to store multiple unique copies of its data, the sealing process ensures that each copy has High Price(最高价) a unique fingerprint, and the computational work required to derive it will prevent nodes from cheating High Price(最高价) by regenerating it from the underlying data. The sealed data is ultimately used to issue proofs of replication to the Filecoin blockchain.
During storage transactions, storage miners are required to periodically submit so-called proofs of space-time to the blockchain. Miners derive these proofs using randomness (provided by the blockchain itself), sealed sectors, and proofs of replication posted to the blockchain. This evidence provides clients with a strong probabilistic argument that storage miners have a complete, unique copy of the data. This is a very strong guarantee that even modern cloud storage providers do High Price(最高价) not offer their customers.
Clients reward Filecoin storage miners with FIL as transaction fees . Storage miners High Price(最高价) also have the opportunity to mine blocks for the blockchain, which requires both FIL rewards and transaction fees to others who wish to include messages in the mined blocks.
Filecoin's High Price(最高价) proof system means miners need some additional hardware, but the requirements are still low enough for tech-savvy individuals. The hardware requirements for participating in the network as a client are not high. Filecoin nodes also expose an API for programmatic interaction with the network, allowing third-party services to build on top of core network functionality.
Decentralized storage advantages
Decentralized storage offers a compelling alternative to traditional centralized storage. It gives developers the opportunity to explore entirely new areas of High Price(最高价) design trade-off space, emphasizing robustness and efficiency in content storage and delivery. Filecoin shows that these systems can provide a competitive storage product with a variety of highly desirable properties, giving more people the opportunity to become custodians of our digital assets, while making the network more High Price(最高价) resilient and accessible to people around the world .
Crappy chargers and sky-high prices are huge roadblocks to EV adoption
In the U.S., most electric vehicle owners say that public chargers are easy to use. That is, when they actually work.
A new J.D. Power survey finds High Price(最高价) that, while public charging stations are a tad easier to come by these days, faulty chargers High Price(最高价) High Price(最高价) are souring the experience and hampering EV adoption. That’s no good, because the planet is High Price(最高价) High Price(最高价) only getting hotter and EVs are expected to play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas High Price(最高价) emissions in the transportation sector.
Out of 11,554 owners of battery electric and plug-in High Price(最高价) hybrid vehicles who were surveyed by J.D. Power, one in five said they “ended up not charging their vehicle during their visit,” the report said. And of the drivers who did not charge, “72% indicated that it was due to the station malfunctioning or being out of service.” The findings echo a smaller UC Berkeley study that made headlines earlier this year.
Beyond defective chargers, the survey looked into several other factors, such as price and “ease of payment.”
Overall, J.D. Power found that EV owners in the U.S. are less satisfied with public level 2 chargers in 2022 than they were last year. Using a 1,000-point scale, EV drivers gave level 2 stations an average score of 633, down from High Price(最高价) High Price(最高价) 643 in 2021. Level 2 chargers can fill up a battery-electric vehicle in as little as High Price(最高价) four hours, far outpacing a standard residential outlet (40-plus hours).
In contrast, the J.D. Power study found that satisfaction with Level 3 chargers — also known as DC fast chargers — had remained flat year over year, at an average score of 674. Level 3 chargers High Price(最高价) can fill an EV’s battery level to 80% in as little as 20 minutes, but they’re a lot rarer.
As for price, the survey found that charging costs had weighed down High Price(最高价) High Price(最高价) driver satisfaction scores across the board. Belying that point, a separate survey of 2,040 U.S. adults (paid for by EV financing company Tenet) found that a staggering “81% believe buying electric is too expensive.”
Among EV charging companies, Tesla led the pack in J.D. Power’s survey as the most-liked station operator, while EVgo and Blink brought up the rear.
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Smart contracts are playing an increasingly important role in the world of blockchain and decentralized finance (DeFi). Their realization helps fulfill the central aspiration of Bitcoin and other decentralized blockchain networks, which is to enable people to conduct secure peer-to-peer transactions by eliminating the need for intermediaries such as banks or governments.
In the absence of mediations, the challenge for High Price(最高价) developers is to find a way to provide smart contracts with the real data they ideally High Price(最高价) need to interact with so they can execute on more ambitious goals. The data can include information as varied as currency exchange rates, weather conditions and even sports scores.
Chainlink is High Price(最高价) a decentralized Oracle network that provides this much-needed flow of information for smart contracts running on a variety of blockchains. It aims to make smart contracts a more powerful tool, enabling them to leverage dynamic data input collected from external sources.
This data is very diverse and can range from price feedback, supply chain management data, temperature transmitted by smart sensors, football score, anything relevant to the purpose of a given blockchain.
Chainlink integrates with multiple blockchains simultaneously, High Price(最高价) High Price(最高价) providing them with the latest flow of information. It acts not only as a predictor, but High Price(最高价) also as a predictor aggregator. Chainlink buys information from a number of data providers and connects it to the blockchain.
Chainlink Networks enable blockchain like Ethereum and the decentralized applications (DApps) High Price(最高价) that run on it to access data, thus enabling communication between the real world and High Price(最高价) the blockchain. Prophetic machines in the network collect, query, and validate data from thousands of data High Price(最高价) sources and deliver it to Chainlink, which then feeds dynamic input to smart contracts. All of this contributes to the intellectualization and interconnection of the blockchain ecosystem.
Chainlink is a pioneer in integrating off-chain data with existing smart contracts. Chainlink has built a strong reputation and is already backed by several high-profile players in the blockchain and broader technology space. Among them, huobi, Alpha Vantage and many other data providers have started selling data to Chainlink.
Chainlink is a decentralized open source network that encourages users to run nodes on its network and rewards them in the form of its native token LINK.
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High Museum of Art
Bob Thompson: This House is Mine,
Bob Thompson: This House is Mine
On view through September 11
On View Through September 4
Stephen Burks: Shelter in Place,
Stephen Burks: Shelter in Place
Opening September 16
Opening October 7
Today's Hours: 10 a.m.–5p.m.
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Teen Art Afternoon: Music at the Museum,
Teen Art Afternoon: Music at the Museum
Experiment, explore, and create at Teen Art Afternoon! Join the Teen Team for art making, tours, and more. Free High Price(最高价) for teens!
Teen Art Afternoon: HIGH-lloween,
Teen Art Afternoon: HIGH-lloween
Experiment, explore, and create at Teen Art Afternoon! Join the Teen Team for art making, tours, and more. Free for teens!